Saturday, January 18th

Subscribe to RSS Feed

2020
Saturday, January 18th
8:00 AM

Breakfast

Breakfast Served

International Building Lobby

8:00 AM - 8:45 AM

Grab your morning coffee, tea, and breakfast before gearing up for the day!

8:30 AM

Registration & Information Table

Registration Table

International Building Lobby

8:30 AM - 3:30 PM

Presenters must sign in here and can pick up their nametags & giveaway bags. Attendees must register here. Questions about the conference? Come see us here.

9:00 AM

[1.1] What is History?

Cameron Mitchell, Mount Royal University

IB 1014

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

This paper addresses the central question of the historian’s craft. Constituted in the present by the passage of time, history is the constant interweaving of event and account. Relayed through narrative and memorialized by historians, history’s concern is the past while its location is the present. The temporal realities which bind historians make knowledge of the past necessarily conjectural. It is the reformulation of historical questions which enables the historian to counter the biases which will inevitably be present in their writing. To that end, this paper critically approaches the methodology of historians and problems that lie therein, reading theorists from R.G. Collingwood to John Lewis Gaddis in attempt to ask how these authors collectively answer the question: “What is history?”

[1.2] Practical Persons: Reconciling Personal and Practical Identity

Zachary R. Schauer, MacEwan University

IB 1014

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

In developing her theory of personal identity called the Person-Life-View, Marya Schechtman claims to rectify a contemporary conflict between metaphysical personal identity and practical concerns, but it seems her concept of a person abandons metaphysical identity, and does not provide a useful theory for answering practical questions. However, Schechtman retains the logical one-to-one form of identity by distinguishing between the singular person-life and the complex person that lives that person-life, and she reconciles the conflict between metaphysics and practicality by arguing that a person is a practical entity. However, Schechtman's account as it stands does not provide useful criteria for recognizing cases of continued identity, but provides a philosophical analysis from which criteria may be formed.

[1.3] Good and Bad Reasons to Reject Externalism

Alexandra Cunningham, St. Thomas University

IB 1014

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

The debate between internalism and externalism in epistemology concerns one of the traditional conditions for knowledge: justification. Specifically, proponents of these theories seek to understand justification and precisely what confers the justificational status on a belief. Theories of justification are typically characterized as internalist if they hold that all reasons for a belief being justified are cognitively accessible to a person. Externalism represents the rejection of this thesis; defenders of this theory deny that the justifiers must be internal to a believer. In this paper, I present an objection to the externalist account. After describing the internalist and externalist positions, I attempt to show that externalism, broadly construed, allows a person to be justified when they hold beliefs for the wrong reasons, and this indicates a significant problem with the theory. Next, I argue that this kind of objection will not work for more specific articulations of the externalist thesis, such as reliablism. Finally, I argue that such theories must still account for a “good reasons” evaluation of justification, an internalist consideration.

[2.1] Sexual Exploitation & Abuse by UN Peacekeepers

Caitlin Spiegel, Queen's University - Kingston, Ontario

IB 1019

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

This paper provides an overview of the development and effectiveness of United Nations Sexual Abuse and Exploitation (SEA) policy. Beginning with an explanation of how instances of SEA by UN personnel were discovered within peacekeeping operations of the 1990s. Then transitioning to the current objectives of SEA policy and the institutions designed to execute them. Each element of the policy is then critically examined based on its fulfillment of local needs and whether offenders are accountable for their actions. I will outline the three primary weaknesses of SEA policy and accountability: the multifaceted nature of SEA, lack of integration with gender initiatives, and the lack of international legislation. Addressed throughout the analysis is the role of gender and gendered binaries. Concluding policy recommendations focus on the integration of SEA policy with the principles of Security Council Resolution 1325 as well as establishing legal accountability for all UN personnel, regardless of their nationality.

[2.2] Smashing the Patriarchy: Defeating Toxic Ideals of Masculinity

Logan I. Yake, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1019

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

Since humans began gathering together and forming societies, the idea of social norms has reigned as a prime motivator for behaviour. Anyone deviating from those norms would be ostracized, so people tend to toe the line and behave like everyone else. Men ended up falling into the role of stoic, emotionless, strong leaders of the household and have not been able to break out since. Even today's contemporary society expects that men will fill this role, labelling things like emotion or vulnerability as weak. The way masculinity is viewed today has created a world that thrives on shame. Women are indisputably victims of toxic masculinity, though these toxic ideals impact everyone to varying degrees. Men are becoming more isolated and lonely than ever before, but cannot reach out for help without being ridiculed by the system. The current definitions of masculinity are ones that promote toxic behaviour across the entire gender spectrum, posing a severe threat to society as a whole.

[2.3] The Double Dead-End of "Post-Truth": An Althusserian Analysis of the Relationship Between Truth and Ideology

William L. Gregson Mr., University of Calgary

IB 1019

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

With Donald Trump’s election in the United States and the Brexit campaign’s success in the United Kingdom, mainstream discourse popularized the notion that a new political era known as “post-truth” was being ushered in. According to the proponents of the concept, the newness of this era is characterized by an “ideological supremacy” over truth, in which truth has been “eclipsed” in politics. This article argues that this understanding of post-truth hits a theoretical double dead-end: (1) it does not provide the tools to adequately inquire into what exactly is new about our political present; and (2) by upholding the truth/ideology dichotomy and thereby dismissing this new political trend simply as delusional, it neglects the social and political reasons for why people have en masse gravitated towards a new form of politics. This article presents an alternative account of the post-truth phenomenon through an engagement of Louis Althusser’s theory of ideology that serves to problematize the faulty concept of post-truth while nevertheless shedding light on the new political phenomenon that the post-truth analysis attempts to understand. I argue that the concept of post-truth is merely a new manifestation of ideology which attempts to answer real social questions in an illusory manner, highlighting the continuities between so-called post-truth politics and other oncoming crises in liberal democracy.

[3.1] Talking Heads: Ritual Decapitation from Medusa to Modernity

Abby L. Riehl, Grant MacEwan Community College

IB 1020

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

This paper explores the continued relationship between classical religions and folkloric rituals seen around the world. Emphasis is placed on decapitation as displayed in the Medusa myth and how it informed later rituals and shaped ideas of the body and the body politic. A large focus will be on rituals of the Medieval era, especially the cases of Thomas Becket, the Templar Knights, the Druids, and the worship of Holy relics. The conclusions drawn from these will be expanded upon into early modern and modern examples. While I do not anticipate finding any direct correlation between the Medusa myth and post-Medieval examples, it will inform our understanding of the ritualistic and symbolic importance of the head as seen during the Satanic Panic of the 1980s and in modern entertainment. Using the methods associated with cultural and intellectual history in which we track the ideas and values of various societies, informed by psychological, philosophical, and anthropological theories and scholarship, the goal of this project is to gain a thorough understanding of the symbol of the human head and its removal from the body, and the essential role that classical religion plays in informing ideas across history up to the present day.

[3.2] The End is Nigh? : Hildegarde of Bingen and Joachim of Fiore Interpretation of the Apocalypse and the Antichrist

Kennedy Garrett

IB 1020

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

This essay will examine the apocalyptic writings of Hildegard of Bingen and Joachim of Fiore, particularly focusing on their depictions of the Antichrist. This essay will look at Hildegard’s description of the Antichrist as found in Vision Five of Hildegard’s Scivias and Joachim’s The Book of Figures, The Fourteenth Table, The Seven Headed Dragon. While both Hildegarde and Joachim were considered as mystics, their respective depictions of the apocalypse and the Antichrist differs widely. Hildegarde’s description of the apocalypse and the Antichrist deal with more the corrupt nature of the church and how this will lead to the apocalypse. However, there is a definite sexual and gendered aspect of Hildegard’s apocalypse and Antichrist. Joachim’s apocalypse deals more with history and how the apocalypse will lead to fully experiencing Christ. The Antichrist, to Joachim, is also very interesting as he believed in multiple Antichrists but that the great Antichrist would bring the apocalypse. Is this difference due to how mystical Hildegarde and Joachim were? Could Joachim be considered a moderate mystic? Or is this due to gender and how gender impacts mystical experience?

[3.3] The Intellectual Reasons for the Lull in English Witchcraft Convictions, 1630-1640.

Catherine Reardon, University of British Columbia

IB 1020

9:00 AM - 10:15 AM

"The Intellectual Reasons for the Lull in English Witchcraft Convictions, 1630-1640." Student: Catherine Reardon. Supervisor: Ruth Frost, UBC Okanagan. Thesis: Charles I’s beliefs and policies that led to a lull in witchcraft convictions from 1630 to 1640 were the product of the influence of sceptical ecclesiastical, intellectual, and scientific elite at the Royal Court of the Stuart monarchy. Key words: Witchcraft, Stuart, England, Intellectual Two Lancashire witchcraft trials occurred in the Pendle Forest of, England: one trial in 1612 and another in 1634. The first trial resulted in the executions of ten “witches”, but in the second, only twenty-two years later, no one was executed. The circumstances under which the witch-hunts began were similar, but the trials ended differently due to a sea change at court. In this presentation, I will determine the influences that brought about a dramatic decrease in convictions for witchcraft during the reign of Charles I. The constant presence of scientifically-minded physicians such as William Harvey, contributed to King Charles I’s tolerance for “witches”. Many elites in the Stuart court believed witchcraft cases could be attributed to fraudulence, ill health, or misinterpretation of natural processes. When Charles I took the throne in 1625, witchcraft was considered a social disturbance not worthy of condemnation. Witchcraft convictions became rare in the decade 1630 to 1640. Charles I’s enlightened attitude toward witchcraft resulted in a lull in witchcraft convictions seldom seen before that time and that would not be seen again during the English Civil War and Interregnum period.

10:30 AM

[1.1] The Origins of the Archidamian War

Dayle F. Steffen, University of Regina

IB 1014

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

The Archidamian War (c. 431-421 BCE) was the first part of the Second Peloponnesian War in Greece. For the purposes of my research, I am looking at the political origins of the war, emphasizing the role of Corinth. Corinth, I feel, has been very underestimated as far as their manipulation of events that led to the outbreak of the war. A prominent figure of the Peloponnesian League (Spartan alliance) it was politically beneficial for Corinth to try and undercut Athenian dominance in Greece, and particularly their naval control over the Aegean. Corinth, it is my opinion, hoped to take advantage of the increasing hostilities in Greece to further their own self-interests. My focus is on the time period from c. 446 BCE with the signing of the Thirty Years’ Peace, up until the Spartan Assembly of c. 431 BCE with the ultimate declaration of war. Within my research there has been special consideration given to ancient authors, particularly Thucydides as the author of The History of the Peloponnesian War. The development of the historiography of the war over time is another important note, as it has seemingly become a mirrored debate over politics for the time in which the history was written in.

[1.2] The Dangerous Evolution of War In the Lense of The Beothuk Extinction

Nada A. Abdelghaffar, Thompson rivers University

IB 1014

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

The Beothuk or the aboriginal people of Newfoundland were a shadowy group of people. Historians today know very little about their culture and demise in 1829. This paper will examine the collapse of the Beothuk world and the drastic change which happened to their lives and culture after European contact in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which eventually led to the extinction of the whole race in 1829. It will also show the fast and dangerous evolution of war over time from controlling lands, food sources and spreading epidemics to cyber wars like the Stuxnet computer worm which attacked computers at the nuclear facility in Iran in 2010. The aim of this paper is to show how human’s overwhelming search for power may eradicate mankind. First of all, the Beothuk lived a hunter gatherer and nomadic lifestyle. They depended on the see for food. They used to hunt for fish, clams, flounder, salmon, and other marine resources. In summer and early fall, they camped to rivers to fish, arrange weddings and trade. All this drastically changed after European contact. The Europeans established settlements on the coast, on the traditional points of the Beothuk. Moreover, they were adept at using firearms which the Beothuk did not even touch. They also spread new kinds of epidemics as they settled. They also disrupted the migratory roots of the caribou which was another animal the Beothuk depended on for food. All these factors led to their extinction. To link this to the modern era, Stuxnet was developed by the united states to devastate programmable logic controllers (PLCs), To collect information on Iran’s computer’s to attack themselves. Finally, human’s search for power may one day lead to our extinction.

[1.3] Myth, Memory, and Magnitogorsk: Towards a Historiographical Middle Ground

Landen J. Kleisinger, University of Regina

IB 1014

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

The construction of Magnitogorsk, the symbolic and practical crux of the first Five-Year Plan (1928-1932), remains shrouded in historical myth; Russian historians claim the construction of the metal works to be the product of sheer Soviet will, while American historians depict it as the result of stolen Western technology. Using primary accounts from business personnel, Western technological specialists, metallurgical industry leaders, and Soviet officials, this paper will argue for a historiographical middle ground; although American technicians were vital to the construction of Magnitogorsk, their impact has been inflated by historians who have neglected to consider the agency and influence exerted by the Soviet leadership and Soviet workers.

[2.1] The Murder of Emanuel Jaques: Limits and Challenges to Liberalism Under Pierre Elliot Trudeau

Julia Aguiar 3011144, Carleton University

IB 1019

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

The carefree spirit of the summer of 1977 in Toronto came to a halt when, at the end of July, twelve-year old Emmanuel Jaques who had recently immigrated from Portugal with his family was brutally raped and murdered as he conducted his work as a shoeshine boy. The location of the murder on Toronto’s seedy Yonge Street, coupled with the fact that two of the four perpetrators of the crime were known members of the LGBTQ community, made this a highly politicized event and thus the subject of widespread media coverage. In a decade marked by changes to Canada’s immigration policies, multiculturalism, and by high-profile protests by LGBTQ activists, the representation in the media about this crime complicate popular notions of liberalism under Pierre Trudeau. The limits of Trudeau’s vision for a multicultural Canada manifested in the way that the mainstream media used the murder to quell threats of “otherness” that the two communities posed. Moreover, the Portuguese and LGBTQ communities challenged assertions of liberalism and multiculturalism propagated by the Pierre Trudeau both within the mainstream media and by carving out their own spaces to assert counter narratives that recasted their communities as politically robust. This paper examines the varied stories told about the murder in the mainstream newspapers, The Toronto Star and The Globe and Mail, as well as the LGBTQ produced magazine, The Body Politic. Ultimately, the murder of Jaques reveals that Canada has never been as white and heterosexual as it has historically desired itself to be.

[2.2] Compassionate Lens to Abject Visions: Reconciling Christer Strömholm’s Photographic Project on the Transsexual ‘Friends’ of Place Blanche

Shantel LaBar, University of Regina

IB 1019

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

In mid-to-late twentieth century Europe, Swedish photographer Christer Strömholm was committed to accumulating unconventional, boundary-pushing photographs that showcased uncommon themes, as well as a personal and professional disposition towards capturing marginalized subjects through photographic experimentations. Strömholm’s intermittent stays between 1959 to 1968 in Parisian communities produced a significant collection of photographs featuring transsexual women employed mainly as prostitutes and/or performers in the surrounding Place Blanche and Place Pigalle districts of Paris. Despite the difficult climate for transsexual women and the taboo nature in documenting them, Strömholm’s photographs came to be celebrated and mythologized in both the public sphere and in photographic communities following the publications of two photo-essay collections entitled Vännerna från Blanche (Friends from Place Blanche)(1983) and Les Amies de Place Blanche (The Friends of Place Blanche)(2011). Upon closer analysis of these photographs, however, it is clear that there is discernible disparity in how the transsexual women are presented between each publication and in the time progression of his photographic project. In the earlier photographs of the transsexual women, both photographer and subjects collaborate to create an idealized and fantasized portrayal of transsexual femininity that depicts these women as glamorous agents in control of their identities and lives. In contrast, the later photographs reveal a lack of agency as the women are fully exposed and literally and symbolically stripped bare, and, consequently, portrayed as poor, desperate, insecure, and dejected transsexual prostitutes. In reconciling this disparity, consideration of the photographer's possible motives and the thematic and visual elements within the photographs are analyzed in relation to Butlerian theories of gender performativity and Kristevian theories of the abject.

[2.3] ‘They Come to Our Country & Think They’ll Do As They Please’: A Critical Analysis on the Causes of Hate Motivated Crimes

Rabiah Choksi Miss, Ryerson University

IB 1019

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

Hate crimes have been present in society for many years, however, the reports of hate crimes have immensely increased within the past few years. Though Canada is renowned for its multiculturalism and inclusion, hate crimes have, and continue to persist in this nation as well. Canadians are no different from the world when it comes to committing crimes motivated by prejudice based upon gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, ‘race,’ or any other identifiable factor that could be classified as the individual’s master status. This essay critically analyzes the causes of hate motivated crimes in Canada in order to understand how to prevent them from occurring. It sheds light on the issue of hate crimes as an embodiment of fear and vengeance, explores how the media has played a vital role in promoting hate motivated crimes against visible minorities, and finally offers some final thoughts on the issue, addressing the need for prevention efforts and hate crime laws.

[3.1] Suffering and Self: An Exploration of the Buddhist Nature of Nietzsche's Concept of the Dionysian

Liam H. Fraser, TRU

IB 1020

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

Over several years I have continuously returned to Nietzsche’s Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy and used it to develop my personal philosophy. The Dionysian lens is a particularly interesting tool when confronting suffering; as there is no logic or reason present in a Dionysian state, creating a more natural conflict of the emotions. The difficulty in communicating Nietzsche is that there are so many directions one can take with his concepts. One could easily speak on the Dionysian influence on art, but that does not seem as philosophically pressing. The possible rectification of the abundance of content within the Dionysian is found within Four Noble Truths of the Buddha and The Doctrine of Not-Self. So in exploring the Nietzschean transformation of the Dionysian and subsequent acceptance of suffering, I will be stepping towards Buddhism. The communication of the abject truth of suffering aids in the acceptance of Nietzsche’s nihilistic philosophy. However, this study is not nihilistic in nature, but an exploration of concepts surrounding suffering. Nietzsche’s Dionysian, as presented in The Birth of Tragedy and Ecce Homo, is a philosophy that works towards the acceptance of suffering in life, becoming intertwined with dharma and traditional Buddhism.

[3.2] How Hegel’s Philosophical History sets up a Neurotic Approach and the Implications it has on Mental Illness

Hanna Conradi, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1020

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

How Hegel’s Philosophical History sets up a Neurotic Approach and the Implications it has on Mental Illness Keywords: Hegel Philosophy of history Philosophical history Neurosis Mental illness The human condition Abstract Aspects of Hegel’s philosophical history will be explored in terms of how they construct themselves as having a neurotic nature. More specific aspects of the individual human experience will be explored first, followed by more macro experiences that are characteristic of world and national Spirit in Hegel’s historical approach. Some potential implications of Spirit’s neurotic tendencies on the philosophical history will also be explored as well as the implications it has on how we conceptualize mental illness and the human condition in general.

[3.3] Solitude: A Heideggerian Analysis

Matt Starker, University of Calgary

IB 1020

10:30 AM - 11:45 AM

Abstract: In Being & Time, Martin Heidegger outlines several possibilities for an authentic being-in-the-world. Authentic being-in-the-world is critical to Heidegger’s analysis, insofar as it allows us to understand the extent of possibilities in our lives, and choose in a way that is removed from the influence of the “they.” Although being-toward-death and anxiety both allows us to experience authentic being-in-the-world, I think that there is an additional possibility for authenticity. In my paper, I will argue that the state-of-mind of solitude is one such possibility. I will focus my analysis of solitude on Heidegger’s ideas of spatiality, states-of-mind and their role in interpretation and understanding, and the “they.” Finally, I will demonstrate that solitude can be theorized as a state-of-mind that discloses the limits of our possibilities, especially, our facticity in its wholeness. In doing so, solitude discloses not the enormous breadth of possibilities for our lives that we experience in anxiety, but rather the limits of our possibilities that are found in our ownmost, unique facticity. This disclosure modifies our relationships with the “they,” and allows us to be authentic.

12:00 PM

Lunch

Lunch Served

International Building Lobby

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

Take a mid-day break!

1:00 PM

[1.1] Reconciling Sovereignty and Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary International Society

Colin Rylan O'Connor

IB 1014

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

This article seeks to reconcile the notion of Humanitarian Intervention with that of sovereignty within international legal, moral and political theory. The current global order is built upon the framework of positive international law that emerged following the 2nd World War and entrenched the right of states to sovereign equality and non-intervention. However, in the wake of state-perpetuated mass atrocities and instances of both intervention and non-intervention in the late-20th century, immense attention has been given to the seeming contradiction between the legal norm of sovereignty and the moral imperative to prevent mass atrocities and human suffering. By employing an English School of IR (ES) perspective, this article argues that sovereign states form an international society and frames humanitarian intervention though this normative orientation. In the context of international society, it becomes clear that sovereignty is a privilege that requires some basic level of qualification. Thus, implying the constructivist notion that states are social constructions that developed towards meeting some elementary goals of society. In turn, sovereignty becomes dependent on the fulfillment of said elementary goals, and should a state fail in this duty, it loses its right to sovereignty and, thus, humanitarian intervention becomes legal and legitimate. Key Terms: Humanitarian Intervention; Sovereignty; International Society; English School of IR; Non-intervention

[1.2] Britain’s Monarchs and the Public Perception of Monarchy 1688-1900's

Jeenat Gill, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1014

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

This paper argues that the public attitude towards the monarchy shifted from fear and respect for their divinely appointed kings and queens to mere figureheads of state with their power given and taken away by Parliament because of previous monarch’s poor decision making. By examining the shift from divine power to tourist attractions, this paper aims to pinpoint when the change occurred and how it effected the British monarchy to come from 1688 to the 1900s. This paper utilizes written primary sources, satirical art pieces, and academic journalism to explore to what extent the monarchy lost its power. Data has been collected from archives, newspapers, and published reports. This paper analyzes how the public reacted to the monarchy over time and how monarchs becoming confined by constitutions and acts as well as their own family problems deteriorated their own political power.

[1.3] Jesus and the Empire: Christianity and the Civilizing Mission in New France and New Zealand

Gina Wiebe, University of the Fraser Valley

IB 1014

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

Jesus and the Empire focuses on missionaries and the role they played in the larger imperial narrative. I examine the role of Anglican Church Missionary Society in New Zealand during the late 18th and early 19th century, comparing it with the early Jesuit mission in New France during the 17th century. In comparing these two regions and time periods, I reveal the consistent imperial ideology that these missionary groups conflated with their religious ideology, even as they sought to separate themselves from the larger colonial framework in the later period. This is revealed through their interactions with contemporary politics and how they worked within and apart from the existing imperial framework. While the Jesuit missionaries saw themselves as part of the civilizing mission within the larger imperial ambitions of France, the CMS missionaries preferred to believe that they were acting apart from the British Empire. Yet they were still enacting many of the core ideas of civilization and progress that constituted British imperialism in the 19th century.

[2.1] Otherwise-Thinkers of Moscow: The Origins of Soviet Dissent, 1950-1980

Robert D. Avram, University of Regina

IB 1019

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

The Soviet dissidents active during Nikita Khrushchev’s Thaw and Brezhnev’s Era of Stagnation were mostly of the same generation. They were not always dissidents. Born into families who had benefitted immensely from the socialist revolution, they grew up with opportunities that were unimaginable to their ancestors. They believed in the propaganda they were taught in schools; that their socialist society was the pinnacle of civilization. During their childhoods, adolescences, and young adulthoods, the dissidents experienced events that shattered their illusion of a socialist utopia. World War II was the earliest of these events. Having previously trusted in the invincibility of the Red Army, living through an occupation was the first sign that not all was as it was proclaimed. The next event that changed their perspectives was their university years. During the late-Stalinist period (early 1950s) they realized the state of paranoia, constant inter-peer surveillance, and ‘brainwashing’ that they lived in. It was also during this period that they would read Lenin for the first time. Those who this did not disillusion with the Soviet system discovered a style of arguing that was analytical and logic based – a stark contrast to the Stalinist style of arguing, which was based off repeating the ‘Unquestionable Truths.’ After graduating, during Khrushchev’s Thaw, they formed a private counter-culture, but they were not yet publically dissenting. The final event that pushed them to publically dissent was when the state authorities began to crack down on their private counter-culture and freedom of expression.

[2.2] Militant Vs. Moderate: The American Suffrage Movement

Tiffany Chow Miss

IB 1019

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

One of the greatest female movements came from the work of the National Woman’s Party (NWP) and the National American Women’s Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Both of these organizations were pivotal in getting the women’s vote in the 1920 ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt played a significant role in achieving this feat. The relationship between the NWP and NAWSA worked to complement one another, even though both the parties’ tactics differed from one another greatly. This connection was not made until the Silent Sentinels was able to provoke President Wilson to speak to NAWSA and this moment was crucial for both groups and women in America. This essay concludes by stating that even though both groups, the NWP and NAWSA, were different, both are viewed equally as forceful in history and should be credited for the dedication and labour put into the movement. Paul’s strategy were more radical and outspoken that brought major media and public attention to the movement. Compared to Chapman’s strategies, which focused on working behind the scenes in order to bring forth change. No doubt, Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman helped pave the way for the advancement of women in the United States.

[2.3] A Flame of Resistance: Polish Partisans in the Second World War

Aviva Gomes-Bhatt, Ryerson University

IB 1019

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

The Second World War was catastrophic on an unmatched scale, amassing death and destruction onto millions of people. The totality of the war meant that soldiers and civilians alike were subject to unimaginable and inescapable horrors. While the military prowess of all the nations involved is nothing to be ignored, often overlooked are the unsung heroes of the war: partisan resistance fighters. Partisans played a crucial role in the war, whether it be through intelligence gathering, sabotage, insurrection, or simply a refusal to cooperate with occupying powers. These actions, no matter how seemingly insignificant, held great significance, both in terms of the outcome of the war, and in upholding the spirit of the people. This was especially true for the resistance in Poland. Suffering a swift and brutal double-occupation from both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939, Polish civilians immediately began to organize against their occupiers, and maintained a resilient spirit until the end of the war. This paper outlines the formation, key moments, and complexities of major Polish partisan movements through the course of the war, and seeks to illustrate their significance through victories and losses alike. It explores the enormity of the contributions of civilian movements, both on a grander international scale, and perhaps most importantly, for the Polish people themselves. The paper argues that despite the Poles failing to achieve the liberty they fought so hard for, the efforts of partisans were by no means wasted.

[3.1] A Not So Necessary Evil: The Justification of Slavery in the Deep South

Deanna R. Brady Miss, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1020

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

Why did slavery exist? This is the exact question that I interrogate in my paper, “A Not So Necessary Evil: The Justification of Slavery in the Deep South.” The institution of slavery existed in the United States for over two centuries until the American Civil War led to it being abolished. While obviously an institution created by racism, Southerners in the Deep South of the Unites States had a multitude of arguments in which they justified slavery. Racism aside, pro-slavery enthusiasts argued for the economic, agricultural, and religious justifications of slavery. Their arguments included studies on the physiology of African-Americans, they used quotes from the bible, and they even went to the extent to state that slaves enjoyed enslavement. With in-depth analysis of primary and secondary sources, I explain in detail the many ways in which slavery was justified in the Southern Hemisphere of the United States of America, and come to the conclusion that it was not necessary, even though so many Southerners believed it was.

[3.2] Renegotiating the United States Military Academy's Position in Post Civil War America

Alexander G. Rousseau, University of British Columbia, Okanagan

IB 1020

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

During the period following the civil war period in America, The United States Military Academy (West Point) has often been regarded to have become obsolete. Colleges and universities were established in the United States by West Point’s emergence as an institution in 1802, but they followed the classical and theological curriculum which offered little to support the fledgling nation’s government as it seeks to expand dominion over their vast territory and develop industry. To fully establish dominion over the continent required scientific exploitation of resources and systematic subjugation of distance through technology. Scholars often do not recognize the change in demand of engineering education and the continued relevancy of West Point’s scholarship in emerging science schools such as Sheffield. At the turn of the century, West Point was not recognized as a valid school of science and engineering stemming from a disdain for military institutions by scholars. While the intention of the West Point had fully embraced the training of competent officers in the Gilded Age, West Point continued to provide a competitive education in civil and military engineering. Additionally, previous graduates have long integrated with civilian economic demands and are reflected in the varied careers of graduates outside the military. Analysis of West Point's influence outside the military in civilian industrial and educational institutions offers a new narrative in which places West Point inside the rise of science-based education in America.

[3.3] MOSES AND DE LORD: The Biography of Harriet Tubman

Rabiah Choksi Miss, Ryerson University

IB 1020

1:00 PM - 2:15 PM

Although the legacy of Harriet Tubman is largely defined by the Underground Railway during the Reconstruction and Civil War eras, she was also an unsung militant hero of the Civil War. Her contributions aside from the Underground Railway have been overlooked by many, despite her having played a crucial role in shaping American history during the 19th century. This paper focuses on her childhood experiences as a slave, her direct and indirect contributions to the Union army during the Civil War, and her contributions to the American society post-war. Harriet Tubman served as a liaison between African Americans behind Union lines and to the Federal General Staff of the Union. Tubman influenced many other African Americans to assist the Union during the Civil War and to partake in espionage. Tubman herself was a scout, a spy, a nurse, and a cook in the Civil War. Post-Civil War she purchased land on which she provided a home for elderly African Americans who were previously slaves in the South. Not only did Tubman aid in the liberation of roughly three hundred Black slaves to the North through the Underground Railway, she later assisted them in the transition to economic sufficiency. Beyond the Civil War, Harriet Tubman served in the Women's Suffrage Movement. She was able to help advocate for the rights of the women's vote until her death in 1913. Harriet Tubman was a true testament to the resilience of African American women.

2:30 PM

[1.1] A Darwinian Perspective on the Purpose of Morality

Nicholas L. Hilton Mr., Thompson Rivers University

IB 1014

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

The drive to be moral is an enigmatic quality that appears to be unique to humans by the overall consensus of behavioral biologists. Seemingly altruistic behaviors have been observed in different lifeforms ranging from bacteria to other vertebrates; however, these differ from human morality in that such altruistic acts seem limited to close relatives or ultimately confer some advantage to the individual. Morality, on the other hand, extends universally, and people appear to act morally regardless of whether doing so has any direct individual benefit. Morality is thus most often regarded as a distinct phenomenon and is a conundrum in that it appears to encapsulate behaviors that are purely selfless. I, however, argue that both human morality and non-human altruistic behaviors are products of the same influences, and I use this parallel as a tool to examine the purpose of morality. I align with Thomas Hobbes’ viewpoint of morality being born out of its utilitarian advantages over the alternative of its absence—the state of nature where every person fends for themselves. This suggests that morality is ultimately a method for humans to achieve self-serving ends. Using Darwinian reasoning, I extend this to provide rationale as to why social groups capable of the social and biological processes that achieve morality would have had a selective advantage over those incapable. My conclusion is that morality in humans can be explained as an evolutionary adaptation necessitated by the advantages it brings.

[1.2] The Novice 2/Expert's Epistemic Injustice Problem

Sahra Nodge, University of Lethbridge

IB 1014

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

Judges routinely determine the credibility of testimony given by expert witnesses. A recent decision by the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench facilitates considerations of the epistemic and moral dimensions of judicial determinations of credibility. In R v Stephan, Justice Clackson was tasked with determining if David and Collett Stephan failed to provide the necessaries of life to their son, Ezekiel. Doing so required determining which of two qualified medical examiners testimony accurately accounted for Ezekiel’s death. After issuing his decision, objections were made expressing concern that Justice Clackson erred his evaluation of expert witness testimony. A complaint registered with the Canadian Judicial Council alleges that diction and speech mannerism influenced Justice Clackson in weighing the evidence and endorsing the account Dr Sauvauge over Dr Adeagbo. Through this case study, I will explicate the assessment processes available to non-experts, in this case, the judge, when they are confronted with conflicting testimony by experts and required to endorse the testimony of one over the other. The problem, identified by Alvin Goldman as “novice/2 expert problem”, poses a challenge in determining the credibility of an expert from an epistemically deficient position. This paper demonstrates a critical problem with components of Goldman’s solution to the novice/2 expert problem, chiefly, the use of working indicator properties that are performative or that replicate the qualities of the powerful. I contend that Goldman’s inclusion of indirect argumentative justification, that is, use of non-reason-based factors as indicators of expertise, may allow for epistemic injustice. Consequently, determining credibility between rival experts based on indirect argumentative justification may be corrupted by working indicator properties infused with social and political power relations and norms of credibility.

[1.3] Omniscience: Investigating the possibility of omniscience and how it relates to free will, determinism, information, and the limits of knowledge.

William K. Mwangi, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1014

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

Free will, determinism, the limits of human knowledge, and the nature of information are subjects that have been on the minds of philosophers, psychologists, scientists and theologians for centuries. These questions especially tend to converge when gods are under discussion. Omniscience, in particular, is the god-like quality that serves as the seed for all these questions. In recent times, artificial intelligence has added a new dimension to these questions. Could AI with access to vast amounts of knowledge attain omniscience in the future? Is omniscience possible? In this paper, the concepts of timelines, information, and volition, will be used to argue against the existence of omniscience, and the implications of that as regards determinism, and the limits of knowledge will be explored.

[1.4] Just Following Orders

Mixon Madland, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1014

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

The superior orders defense is when a soldier carries out orders to commit a war crime, and then defends them self in court by claiming they were just following orders. It is a defense that raises intricate questions of morality, ethics, responsibility, and liability during wartime. There are many factors to consider when assessing the legitimacy of a superior orders defense, such as the seriousness of the crime, the state of mind of the individual, the setting in which the crime takes place, among others. To call it a complex issue is something of an understatement. The superior orders defense has been used many times throughout history; however, it became known as the Nuremburg defense during the Nuremburg trials where many high-ranking German officials were put on trial for war crimes committed during World War II. The Nuremburg defense is an issue that has plagued lawmakers and international courts for many years and will not be definitely resolved in the course of this essay. There are many valid arguments on both sides that must be weighed carefully. This issue also exists on somewhat of a continuum, and the answer must lie somewhere in the middle. However, the purpose of this essay will be to argue against the Nuremburg defense in most cases where it comes up.

[2.1] The struggles of Canadian healthcare

Bryan M. Caillier

IB 1019

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

The Canadian health care system is a very complex subject, but when dissected by Jeffrey Simpson in his book Chronic condition he opens up the notion that it needs many improvements. Some of his ideas include the potential use of nurse practitioners, better management at hospitals through regional health authorities, and the discussion of doctors' and nurses' wages. But before improvements are suggested, an understanding of the current system must be established. Simpson provides points on how it functions in practice (inside the hospitals), how the Medicare system is viewed by both citizens and government, and how the system is currently turning into a black hole, sucking in most of both provincial and federal funds. Even though it is such a complex issue, Simpson offers reasonable and achievable goals, and if implemented correctly, could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Canadian health care system.

[2.2] The Other Half of Healthcare: Successes, Failures, and Discrepancies in Canadian Mental Health Policy

Katelynn Kowalchuk, University of Regina

IB 1019

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

In 2006, the Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology released their final report, "Out of the Shadows at Last: Transforming Mental Health, Mental Illness and Addiction Services in Canada". It critically examines the state of Canadian mental-healthcare through a recovery-oriented epistemology, supplemented by three pillars: choice, community, and integration. Put differently, the Report argues that consumers should have access to a variety of mental-healthcare services provided within their home locality and operated in tandem with both physical-healthcare and other social policies. It finds that Canadian mental-healthcare is in need of major reform and that the responsibility for this reform lies with both the provincial and federal governments. In its preliminary stages, my research will examine how Canadian mental healthcare policies have evolved since the 2006 Senate Report, particularly as they relate to the three pillars of recovery-oriented care, guided by these four questions: How do we define a public mental health crisis in terms of service availability and public experiences? Which pillars have been implemented in (and excluded from) provincial mental healthcare policies? Has the federal government adopted any of the recommendations within the Report? What are the recurring policy themes between the provinces? In brief, this project will examine the evolution of Canadian mental-healthcare services within a recovery-oriented framework, identify policy shortcomings and successes in each province, and compare these cases to find emerging mental health policy themes.

[2.3] The Development of Abortion Policy in Canada and the Issue of Access: An Analysis from a Sociological Perspective

Shayla Batty, University of Saskatchewan

IB 1019

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

Abortion is a controversial topic within the political realm because of its broad and deeply held viewpoints concerning female rights and moral obligations. This paper provides an analysis of the current state of abortion policy in Canada and signifies its importance from sociological and political perspectives, with a focus on the systemic and structural nature of abortion policy development. Beginning with a history of the development of the Canadian abortion policies, the paper explores how despite strides by policy-makers to instate women’s body autonomy, access to abortion services is limited by four contributing factors. 1) New Brunswick violates Canada’s universal health care requirements by not publicly insuring abortion services in clinics. 2) The geographical disparity of abortion services creates economic barriers to abortion services for women particularity of low socio-economic status. 3) There is a general lack of physicians that are willing and adequately trained to perform abortions. 4) Anti-choice physicians can abuse their authority by personally restricting access to abortion in a coercive manner, making a woman believe she does not have the option to abort her unwanted pregnancy. To close, I provide the following recommendations: abortion should be publicly funded in each province and territory in both hospital and clinic settings, policies should be created to increase abortion education in Canadian medical schools, mobile abortion clinics should be implemented to alleviate geographical and economic barriers in rural areas, and policies should be created to ensure that doctors cannot personally inhibit access on moral grounds.

[2.4] Time Periods: The Stigma of Menstruation Throughout Advertising History

Sarah CS Hall ms, Thompson Rivers University

IB 1019

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

Why is female menstruation continually looked at as an ultimate taboo subject matter? Why is menstruation seen as an unclean and shameful process? Why must we conceal our feminine products when we go to the bathroom? Why do we use language to tip toe around the presence of female menstruation? Why should we be told how and how not to behave when we menstruate? Why do we have to constantly validate our symptoms to others? Why are we and society embarrassed about female mensuration? Questions, such as these, and many more, have been asked and have either been inaccurately answered, or not answered at all. Without a doubt, these initial questions are difficult to pinpoint; however, all the questions encompass why female menstruation is steadily viewed as taboo subject matter and stigmatized. Though women’s menstrual cycles have been stigmatized, questioned, or simply ignored throughout history, women have been made to feel ashamed or embarrassed of their own bodies and processes that their bodies carry out. Consequently, women feel intense embarrassment about menstruation, especially due to societal influence. This was often a result because menstruation as a biological process itself was hidden from the public sphere and manipulated by advertising methods. Elizabeth Armeni argues “Advertisers understood well the potential threat menstruation posed to a woman's overall composure for they knew of the shame society held over this monthly process” and therefor utilized shame to their strategic advantage with presenting and promoting products for women and projecting such notions on to society. [1] Though, thoughts about menstruation and shame were already pre-existing, advertising strategies developed a deeper layer of taboo and stigmatization. By focusing on advertising methods that companies used in advertising female menstrual products, a closer look at manipulation and distortion can be revealed that influenced women and society.

[1] Elizabeth Armeni, “Menstruation Goes Public: Aspects of Women ls Menstrual Experience in Montreal” 1920-1975, 137.

[3.1] Aboriginal Mobilization: Community Response to Canada’s Colonial Legal System

Kaitlyn Seath, University of Regina

IB 1020

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

When analyzing the history of the Canadian state’s interaction with Aboriginal rights, especially regarding land claim disputes, it is clear that the nation’s colonial legal system severely restricts the ability for Aboriginal peoples to express sovereignty over their traditional territories. As a result, Aboriginal communities have turned to social movements as an alternative method to claim their rights to traditional lands in Canada. This paper explores the success of various Aboriginal-led social movements while they mobilize around land claim disputes within the different structures of the Canadian legal system. It is noted that while acts of Aboriginal-led civil disobedience have the potential to hold the Canadian government accountable to their own colonialist legal systems, the extent of their success is limited by ways in which the Crown translates existing laws. Therefore, social movements aimed at claiming rights to land incorporated in the Numbered Treaties, such as the legal battle exemplified by the Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug (KI) First Nation, have limited success. In contrast, if Aboriginal communities are able to prove traditional title over unceded lands, such as the Haida Nation has in BC, social movements have proven to be highly effective in holding the Crown accountable to the laws established via their own legal system.

[3.2] Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women: When is There a Responsibility to Protect?

Amber A. Jackson, University of Saskatchewan

IB 1020

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine is somewhat a reversal of traditional ideals of sovereignty, in which the international community have a shared responsibility to protect all people. This paper will seek to discover if this doctrine could be successfully applied in the Canadian context of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls. If it cannot, the question must be asked: Is R2P even a valid norm, or is it nothing more than an agent of neocolonialism? Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) have been documented trying to misappropriate the doctrine. If this is how the UNSC approaches the doctrine, we must ask: what was the true intention behind R2P? Canada, as a western settler-colonial state with disproportionate power on the world stage, is not likely to be seen as unstable or unable to protect their citizens. However, the Canadian state is documented to be manifestly failing to provide protection to its most vulnerable population, Indigenous women. The National Inquiry for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls determined that, according to the Genocide Convention, this crisis could be considered a genocide. I will argue that R2P could be applied to the Canadian context of missing and murdered Indigenous women. Additionally, I will also be asserting that it would never be used in this context due to the neocolonial roots of international politics. R2P, like the cosmopolitan ideology in which it is rooted, are noble ideals to work towards, but become much more problematic in practice.

[3.3] Politics of Representation: Colonel Russell Williams

Kaitlin E. Flinn, Ryerson University

IB 1020

2:30 PM - 4:00 PM

The study of Criminology has expanded into multiple different branches over the course of its development. It has become intertwined with various other disciplines, Political Science being one, to aid in the understanding of new developments and perspectives that are brought into society. As society has progressed, so too have the very different lenses through which we analyze and study crime and the circumstances in which it occurs. From these theories, we are able to draw conclusions and further explanations regarding the possible root causes of crime, aspects of the criminal mind, and underlying causes that can attribute to inequalities that are found between race, gender, and class when it comes to the treatment of the criminal(s) and even the victim(s). This paper addresses these inequalities by using Feminist Theory to further understand the root in which gender inequalities have embedded themselves within the criminal process, as well as other concepts that have been established and ingrained within our society to carry on these inequalities. To successfully address these concepts and issues, a real-life criminal case that occurred in Canada is used to properly understand the ways in which they are existent. As a part of this analysis, real news articles are used to examine the author’s language, the details they used, and the opinion they carry to conclude how gender inequality, race, and class have become so naturally prevalent within our society regardless of the severity of the crime.

6:00 PM

Conference Banquet & Internal Keynote Address by Dr.Tim Fitzjohn (TRU)

Kristen Jacobsen, Thompson Rivers University
Delta Hotel

Delta Hotel

6:00 PM - 11:59 PM

Dr. Fitzjohn’s interests are in the areas of German Philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries and Ancient Philosophy. The topic of the internal keynote is on the complexities that Hegel’s philosophy asks us to think about when addressing the basic question of what it means to be a free being within a community of other free beings. The Banquet is always a highlight of the conference weekend. This ticketed event includes an excellent dinner, a Keynote Address and a DJ'ed dance. Taking place at the Delta Hotel this year, it provides a great evening of socializing among peers and faculty and is not to be missed!

This is a ticketed event. Please purchase your tickets at https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/tru-php-conference-tickets-84660861917?aff=ebdssbdestsearch